In contrast, perceptive marketers leverage their understanding of attitudes to predict the behavior of consumers. These savvy marketers know exactly how to distinguish the differences between beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors while leveraging all three in the development of marketing strategies.
Theories Regarding Attitude Formation And Function Psychology Essay. Print emerging from which are differing theories with regards their formation and function (Katz, ). These campaigns frequently use emotion invoking tactics, but the level of information held by the individual regarding the attitude to be formed may highly. In psychology, attitude is a psychological construct, a mental and emotional entity that inheres in, or characterizes a person. They are complex and an acquired state through experiences. It is an individual's predisposed state of mind regarding a value and it is precipitated through a responsive expression toward a person, place, thing, or event (the attitude object) which in turn influences. Forming and changing attitudes ATTRIBUTIONS Early theories of attribution The effects of bias Cultural differences feelings and past behaviour regarding attitude objects – they can also predict attitudes. Attitudes? Attitudes, Attributions and Social Cognition. Attitudes Attitude behaviour.
The ego-defensive notion correlates nicely with Downward Comparison Theory which holds the view that derogating a less fortunate other increases our own subjective well-being.
We are more likely to use the ego-defensive function when we suffer a frustration or misfortune. Value-Expressive Serves to express one's central values and self-concept. Central values tend to establish our identity and gain us social approval thereby showing us who we are, and what we stand for.
An example would concern attitudes toward a controversial political issue. Formation[ edit ] According to Dooblearning can account for most of the attitudes we hold. The study of attitude formation is the study of how people form evaluations of persons, places or things.
Theories of classical conditioning, instrumental conditioning and social learning are mainly responsible for formation of attitude.
Unlike personalityattitudes are expected to change as a function of experience. In addition, exposure to the 'attitude' objects may have an effect on how a person forms his or her attitude. This concept was seen as the "Mere-Exposure Effect". Robert Zajonc showed that people were more likely to have a positive attitude on 'attitude objects' when they were exposed to it frequently than if they were not.
Mere repeated exposure of the individual to a stimulus is a sufficient condition for the enhancement of his attitude toward it. For example, consistency theories, which imply that we must be consistent in our beliefs and values.
As with any type of heritability, to determine if a particular trait has a basis in our genes, twin studies are used. Attitude change Attitudes can be changed through persuasion and an important domain of research on attitude change focuses on responses to communication.
Experimental research into the factors that can affect the persuasiveness of a message include: These are characteristics that refer to the person who receives and processes a message.
One such trait is intelligence - it seems that more intelligent people are less easily persuaded by one-sided messages. Another variable that has been studied in this category is self-esteem. The mind frame and mood of the target also plays a role in this process. The major source characteristics are expertise, trustworthiness and interpersonal attraction or attractiveness.
The credibility of a perceived message has been found to be a key variable here; if one reads a report about health and believes it came from a professional medical journal, one may be more easily persuaded than if one believes it is from a popular newspaper.
Some psychologists have debated whether this is a long-lasting effect and Hovland and Weiss found the effect of telling people that a message came from a credible source disappeared after several weeks the so-called " sleeper effect ".
Whether there is a sleeper effect is controversial. Perceived wisdom is that if people are informed of the source of a message before hearing it, there is less likelihood of a sleeper effect than if they are told a message and then told its source.
The nature of the message plays a role in persuasion. Sometimes presenting both sides of a story is useful to help change attitudes. When people are not motivated to process the message, simply the number of arguments presented in a persuasive message will influence attitude change, such that a greater number of arguments will produce greater attitude change.
A message can appeal to an individual's cognitive evaluation to help change an attitude. In the central route to persuasion the individual is presented with the data and motivated to evaluate the data and arrive at an attitude changing conclusion.
In the peripheral route to attitude change, the individual is encouraged to not look at the content but at the source. This is commonly seen in modern advertisements that feature celebrities. In some cases, physician, doctors or experts are used. In other cases film stars are used for their attractiveness.
Emotion and attitude change[ edit ] Emotion is a common component in persuasionsocial influenceand attitude change. Much of attitude research emphasized the importance of affective or emotion components. Emotion works hand-in-hand with the cognitive process, or the way we think, about an issue or situation.
Emotional appeals are commonly found in advertising, health campaigns and political messages.Attitudes have been described as one of the most important concepts in social psychology. According to Petty and Cacioppo () ‘the term attitude should be used to refer to a general, enduring positive or negative .
Theories Regarding Attitude Formation And Function Psychology Essay. Print emerging from which are differing theories with regards their formation and function (Katz, ). These campaigns frequently use emotion invoking tactics, but the level of information held by the individual regarding the attitude to be formed may highly.
Attitude Formation CCSF, Essay on Psychology attitudes An attitude is a way There are many theories whose aim is to explain behaviour – biological, cognitive, social. One of the most influential ones, though, is said to be the social theory of attitudes.
The value-expressive function is employed when a consumer is basing their attitude regarding a product or service on self-concept or central values.
The association or reflection that a product or service has on the consumer is the main concern of an individual embracing the value expressive function (Solomon, ). Essay # 5. Functions of Attitude: According to Katz, attitudes serve four important functions from the viewpoint of organizational behaviour.
These are as follows: (a) The Adjustment Function: Attitudes often help people to adjust to their work environment. Every attitude has three components that are represented in what is called the ABC model of attitudes: A for affective, B for behavioral, and C for cognitive.
Although every attitude has these three components, any particular attitude can be based on one component more than another.